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论学

论学

论读书
         培根  著
         王佐良 译

  读书足以怡情,足以傅彩,足以长才。其怡情也,最见于独处幽居之时;其傅彩也,最见于高谈阔论之中;其长才也,最见于处 世判事之际。

  练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判别枝节,然纵观统筹,全局策划,则舍好学深思者莫属。读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。

  读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹如自然花草,读书然后知如何修剪移接,而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。

[ 本帖最后由 伍振华 于 2012-6-20 15:31 编辑 ]

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续 1# 伍振华 的帖子

  有一技之长者鄙读书,无知者羡读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。

  读书时不可存心诘难读者,不可尽信书上所言,亦不可只为寻章摘句,而应推敲细思。

  书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只需读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而无味。

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续 2# 伍振华 的帖子

  读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常做笔记者须记忆力特强,不常讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。

  读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩;凡有所学,皆成性格。

  人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑术利头脑,诸如此类。如智力不集中,可令读数学,盖演题需全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辩异,可令读经院哲学,盖是辈皆吹毛求疵之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。如此头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特效可医。

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续 3# 伍振华 的帖子

Of Study

  STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment, and disposition of business. For expert men can exe-cute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best, from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need proyning, by study; and studies themselves, do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them bothers; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books, else distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy things.

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  Reading make a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit: and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know, that he doth not. Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtitle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in mores. Nay, there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of the body, may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man\'s wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the Schoolmen; for they are cymini sectors. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers\' cases. So every defect of the mind, may have a special receipt.

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叔本华论读书

(节选自:叔本华《读书与书籍》)



富翁阔佬在显露出他的愚昧无知时,常会格外令人鄙视。而穷人终日操劳,没有深思幽想的余闲,显出无知是不足为奇的。我们常常可以见到富裕阶层中的粗俗愚蠢者醉生梦死,恣情享乐,像禽兽一样活着。如果他们善于利用自己的财富和时间的话,本来可以做出一些很有价值的事情。

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续6# 伍振华 的帖子

二  
读书时,作者在代我们思想,我们不过在追循着他的思绪,好像一个习字的学生在依着先生的笔迹描划。我们自己的思维在读书时大部分停止了,因此会有轻松的感觉。但就在读书的时候,我们的头脑实际上成了他人思绪驰骋的运动场了。所以读书甚多,或几乎整天在读书的人,虽然可以借此宽松脑筋,却渐渐失去自行思想的能力,就像时常骑马的人渐渐失去步行的能力一样。有许多学者就是这样,读书太多反而变得愚蠢。经常读书,稍有空闲就读书,这种做法比体力劳动更容易令人思维麻痹,因为我们在干体力活时还可以沉湎于自己的遐想,一条弹簧在久受外力的压迫之后会失去弹性,同样,我们的头脑如果经常处在他人的思想影响之下,也会失去自己的活力。又譬如食物能够滋养身体,但吃得过多,反使胃肠受累,损害健康;而我们的精神生活如果向外摄取过多,也是有害无益的。读书越多,使你的头脑就像一块重重叠叠书写的黑板,每一篇读过的东西能够留存的越少。读书而不思考,就不可能心领神会,得到的浅薄印象往往稍纵即逝。就像我们所摄入的食物只有五十分之一能够被身体吸收,精神食粮也只有小部分真正成为大脑的营养。

况且记录在纸上的思想就好像沙上行走者的足迹:我们也许能看到他所走过的路径,但如果要知道他在路上究竟看见了什么,则必须用我们自己的眼睛。

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续 7# 伍振华 的帖子

  三

  作家们各有自己的风格特点,例如雄辩、豪放、华丽、优雅、简洁、纯朴、轻快、诙谐,精辟等等,并非阅读他们的作品就可以学到这些优点。但如果我们生来具有这方面的天赋,也许可因读书而受到启迪。看到别人的榜样而善于学习运用,我们才能获得同样的才干。这样的读书,能引导我们发挥自己的特长,培养写作的能力,但具有这方面的天赋是一个先决条件。否则我们在读书中除了学到一些陈词滥调,别无益处,只能成为浅薄的模仿者而已。

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续 8# 伍振华 的帖子

  四
  如同地层依次保存着古代的生物一样,图书馆的书架上也保存着历代的古书。后者与前者一样,在其当时,都是生气勃勃,大有作为的,现在则成为化石,死气沉沉,只有考古学家还有兴致玩赏。
  五
  据赫鲁多特斯说,色尔泽克斯在望着自己漫无边际的庞大军队时掉下了眼泪,因为他想到百年之后,这些人将荡然无存。如果想到堆积如山的流行图书在十年之后没有一本被人阅读,不也应该落几滴眼泪吗?

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续 9# 伍振华 的帖子

  六
  文艺界的情况与人世间相同:无论你向社会的哪一个角落望去,都会看到无数愚民像苍蝇似的攒动,追污逐垢,在文艺界中,也有无数坏书,像蓬勃滋生的野草伤害五谷。这些书原是为贪图金钱、企求官职而写作的,却使读者浪费时间、金钱和精力。因此,它们不但无益,而且为害甚大。现在的图书泛滥成灾,十分之九是以骗钱为目的,作者、评论家和出版商同流合污,朋比为奸。
  许多文人非常狡猾,不是引导读者追求高尚的趣味和修养,而是引诱他们以读新书为时髦,好在交际场中卖弄学识。诸如斯平德勒、布尔沃、尤金.休等人,都因善于投机而名噪一时。无论何时,都会出现很多这样的通俗作品,却使读者倒了霉,他们把阅读这些庸俗作家的最新著作当作自己的义务,而不去阅读古今中外为数不多的杰作--其中那些每天出版的通俗刊物尤为缺德,偷偷夺去了世人宝贵的光阴,使他们无暇顾及真正有益于修养的作品。
  因此,对于善于读书的人,决不滥读是件很重要的事情。即使是时下正享盛名,大受欢迎的书,如一年数版的政治、宗教小册子、小说、诗歌等,也切勿贸然拿来就读。要知道,为愚民而写作的人反而常会大受欢迎,不如把宝贵的时间用来专心一致地阅读古今中外出类拔萃的名著,这些书才使人开卷有益。
  坏书是灵魂的毒药,读得越少越好,而好书则多多益善。因为一般人通常只读最新的出版物,而不读各个时代最杰出的作品,所以作家也就拘囿在流行思潮的小范围中,时代也就在自己的泥泞中越陷越深了。
  不读坏书,是读好书的一个条件:因为人生短促,时间和精力都是有限的。

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