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Electronic Records: A Workbook for Archivists

Electronic Records: A Workbook for Archivists

ICA Committee on Current Records in an Electronic Environment
APRIL 2005

Electronic Records: A Workbook for Archivists (ICA Study 16)
This study is the work of the International Council on Archives Committee on Current Records in an Electronic Environment (2000-2004).
  
In 1997, the International Council on Archives published the Guide for Managing Electronic Records from an Archival Perspective, (hereafter the Guide) which was prepared by the Committee on Electronic Records (1993-1996). That Guide provides the context for this Workbook: our approach has been informed by it.

In order to preserve electronic records, it is important that archival requirements are incorporated when systems are designed and that records are carefully controlled throughout their life cycle to ensure their ongoing quality and integrity.

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1.1Background
The Workbook takes its governing principles and aims from the Guide, but it draws its terminology and definitions from ISO 15489-1 (Records Management). This International Standard focuses on records management: the archival perspective on some of the concepts is discussed further in Chapter 2, Basic Concepts and Definitions. Readers of the Workbook are encouraged to begin by studying the Guide and ISO 15489-1 and ISO/TR 15489-2.

At the core of this Workbook are the four principles first developed by the authors of the Guide[         John McDonald, ‘Archives and Current Records’, p. 111. ]
The archives should facilitate the establishment of policies, procedures, systems, standards and practices designed to assist records creators to create and retain records which are authentic, reliable and preservable;
The archives should be involved in the entire records life cycle (conception, creation, maintenance) to ensure the capture, preservation and continued accessibility of records identified as having archival value;
The archives should manage the review of records in order to identify those of archival value; and
The archives should articulate requirements for preservation and accessibility to ensure that archival records remain available, accessible, and understandable through time.

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Archival function
The preceding Guide defined the concept of archival function as follows:

The archival function is that group of related activities contributing to, and necessary for accomplishing the goals of safeguarding and preserving archival records, and ensuring that such records are accessible and understandable. [         Guide for Managing Electronic Records from an Archival Perspective, p. 25.]

The archival function exists independently from the archive as an institution. Very often, not only archives are concerned with the archival function. In an electronic environment, the activities related to the archival function start long before the creation of records, with the design of a recordkeeping system. Consequently, different partners can be (and are) involved in carrying out the archival function, “including (but not limited to) records creators, registrars, records managers and archivists.” [         Ibid., p. 25.]

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Record
In many countries, national legislation defines a record, and these definitions have to be respected and applied in their corresponding legal environment. This Workbook is not written from a legal perspective; rather, it presents an archival approach to electronic records. Both Guide and Workbook are based on the key concepts of record and recordkeeping. They apply to all records, regardless of format and medium. In the Guide, ‘record’ is defined as


recorded information produced or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an institutional or individual activity and that comprises content, context and structure sufficient to provide evidence of the activity.


This broad concept covers all the different types of records created in an office system. Records can occur in different forms and representations. They are usually represented as logically delimited information objects, for example, as distinct documents. But increasingly we find records in the form of distributed objects, such as relational databases and compound documents.
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